A review on biomass torrefaction process and product properties for energy applications
Abstract: Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300°C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin, and cellulose. The torrefaction process produces a brown to black uniform solid product, as well as condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and noncondensable gases (CO2 , CO, and CH4 ). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, while 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and noncondensable products.Click here to read the full document.