IEA Bioenergy Task 34: Direct thermochemical liquefaction

It is the fundamental concept of a bioeconomy to replace fossil based production pathways by using biomass that can be regrown, be it dedicated crops or residues e.g. from food production. The variety of commodities used in everyday life demands for a transformation of these biomass resources in one or the other way. With very few exceptions, all conversion processes for biomass produce solid, liquid, and gaseous products in varying yields and composition. Liquefaction could be generally defined as conversion process with the aim to produce liquid products (as primary product and/or with the highest yield).

Liquid commodities are visible to the customer primarily in the form of transportation and heating fuels, but they are also of utmost importance to many industrial processes. Liquids are easy to handle and store; many basic chemicals for the production of everyday goods are liquids, too. Due to these reasons, conversion of biomass to liquid products is often associated with a higher value addition than the analogue processes of carbonization (for solid products) and gasification (for gaseous products).

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